What Government Does for People They do Not for Themselves

We had an interesting lunch with some Brazilian friends. Among other things, we talked about the culture of responsibility. It is a common complain among Brazilians that people here expect too much from the government and that the government delivers much too little. Everybody mentions the various corruption scandals that seem to surface with monotonous regularity. I was able to give a little favorable perspective. The Brazil I found when I returned after almost twenty-five years was better in almost every way than the one I left in 1988, I told them. Problems remain, of course. But they are not uniquely Brazilian and, IMO, many can be traced to expectations mentioned above.

I mentioned the work of Alexis de Tocqueville. Any American who has seriously studied our history is familiar with Tocqueville, but his fame doesn't seem to cross our borders. I explained that Tocqueville was a French aristocrat who wrote about democracy in America in the 1830s. We Americans take lots of what he wrote as compliments; he didn't always mean it that way. In the America that Tocqueville described, hard work, enterprise and money-making are the rule. Americans, he noted, do not defer to elites, as they still did in Europe. This included, to Tocqueville's distress, not deferring even to those of "superior talent and intelligence." America was a dynamic, although maybe a rude place. But the America was more exceptional in the amount of local and personal initiative.

In the Old World, citizens petitioned their government to do things for them. After that they waited for it to happen and complained when it wasn't done right. Tocqueville observed that in America many of these "government" tasks were taken up by individuals in voluntary, often temporary, association. We formed task forces and committees to address local problems, bringing in government as last resort and even then resorting to government at the lowest level possible. In France at the time, power to make decisions about local roads or building codes would migrate to Paris and the choices made there. In America, they were often not made by government at all and when government was necessary, it was usually the local officials who called the shots.

American tradition of working through voluntary associations has persisted to this day. One of our colleagues said that this is what surprised him when he was on an exchange in the U.S. He gave the example of his host family and all the neighbors getting together to do the dirty work, literally shoveling manure, in the barns at the Indiana State Fair. In most other countries, this just doesn't happen. At best, people might give money to hire somebody to do it.

I pointed out that government in the U.S. has plenty of problems and petty corruption, but one reason why it has historically been more responsive to the people is that we ask it to do less. Tocqueville warned of "soft despotism" in democracies, where citizens vote for politicians who promise to give them things. When people have the habits (Tocqueville called them "habits of the heart") to do things for themselves in voluntary association with their fellow citizens, it preempts the necessity of government intervention and also preempts the creation of a network of petty rules and regulations that are the bane of existence in the more bureaucratic states. Soft despotism is ameliorated if those voting benefits have to pay for them and even more so if they have to work in their creations.

My life in other countries has, IMO, helped me see America in a more objective way and I think there has been a convergence in the last quarter century. People in many other countries have become somewhat more active in doing things in voluntary association rather than waiting or demanding government action. On the other hand, America has become more bureaucratized. Government has reached into voluntary associations in ways it did not before, establishing rules and standards that seem to make sense but end up crippling the voluntary impulse.

I read about a recent (Thanksgiving) example where the authorities in New Jersey have imposed various regulations on church-run soup kitchens. People can no longer bring food from home to donate and there are stricter rules on facilities and reporting requirements that will cost more than $150,000.00 a year. You can argue that such regulations are good, but they will have two effects. They will take it out of the hands of people and make another activity the responsibility of the government. In short order, costs will rise. The people who used to get satisfaction from carry out their responsibly as good citizens will resent the taxes and the recipients will get less and lower quality food.

Lawyers are also getting involved. People engaged in voluntary activities are now advised to get liability insurance. We are managing to make good citizenship costly and hazardous to your financial future. When you make things harder or more expensive, you get less of them.

America really was exceptional in the number of things we did voluntarily. Authorities are/were not always welcoming. I recall reading a biography of Ben Franklin, who was the godfather of many good citizenship practices. The local representatives of the king did not always welcome his self-help plans. They considered them subversive and they were right. When people can do things for themselves they become less dependent on the beneficence and largess of the state.

I am glad to see that people in many places around the world are seeing the benefit of acting outside both governmental and the strictly private spheres. People working together in voluntary association is the essence of community. We don't make friends face-to-face; we make them shoulder-to-shoulder working on common goals. I think it is healthy that they are becoming more like us, even if that means American is less "exceptional". But it is not healthy that we are becoming less like we were.

Posted by Christine & John at December 4, 2011 12:38 PM
Comments
Comment #332700

Something Harry Browne said some time ago before his untimely death that I was reminded of today, goes along with this a bit…

“Once it’s considered proper to use the force of government to solve one person’s problem, force can be justified to solve anyone’s problem. Over time, fewer and fewer requests seem out of bounds. And the grounds for saying “no” become more and more eroded. The pressure on politicians to use coercion to grant favors becomes overwhelming. Remember this the next time you’re tempted to support a proposal for a new government program — ANY government program.”

Does anyone not see this coming true in the United States?

Posted by: Rhinehold at December 5, 2011 2:29 AM
Comment #332713

I can’t force a derivatives trader to list his trades on an open exchange, or to not risk the bank he works or his client’s money in foolish ways.

If I showed up at a factory door and tried to get them to emit less sulfur dioxide, I would get either laughed out of the place, or dragged out by security.

The issue is, some things are ridiculously difficult to do by yourself, or by competing private groups. Some things companies have no incentive to do, or do right. The fantasy of some is for the after-the-fact self-correcting mechanisms of the market to take care of society’s problems.

The notion is, the markets are somehow evolutionary, in the sense of an ever continuing path to perfection. Trouble is, like real evolution, the evolution of the markets is adaptive, but not towards some grand, platonic, underlying reality, but towards whatever it is at the moment that society and the rewards of wealth encouraged.

This is how you get collosal screw-ups like the one we just had. Buying and flipping houses made money. The market rewarded that behavior. Until it didn’t. Falsely labelling mortgage securities full of bad loans made money for the ratings companies. Until it didn’t. Trading derivative based on that market made money. Until it didn’t.

Just as Enron’s funky accounting helped it make money, helped make it a great deal, until it wasn’t. Just as energy trading helped make Enron a ton of money, even while it battered the California economy.

Adaptations in nature are often far from ideal. Incentives of survival might equip a creature with claws that keep it from running fast, or a venom that requires great effort from its system to produce. Some creatures live off of other creature’s waste. Some creatures live as parasites. Rather than being some vague ideals, these creatures become complex, mixed bags of traits.

And sometimes, when the wrong changes come along, these creatures become extinct.

The thing to keep in mind is that nature adapts provisionally, and expediently, not with an eye towards crystalline perfecion, and sometimes that costs a species its existence. If you’re a butterfly that can only drink nectar from a single variety of flower, and that flower dies out in your area, you’re screwed.

Nature does this because functioning on accident is perfectly fine for nature. If it works, fine, if it doesn’t, something else will come along that will.

Though complexity will sometimes bedevil best intentions, that’s no reason to fall back on purely accidental methods of social regulation. We weren’t given these brains just for the hell of it. There is value in forethought, and it’s time for Americans to stop assuming that it’s in our national character to foreswear it.

Posted by: Stephen Daugherty at December 5, 2011 2:27 PM
Comment #332742
I can’t force a derivatives trader to list his trades on an open exchange, or to not risk the bank he works or his client’s money in foolish ways.

Nope, but you can choose not to do business with a bank that takes foolish risks or a trader that operates in derivatives. Acting helpless doesn’t help your case much I’m afraid…

If I showed up at a factory door and tried to get them to emit less sulfur dioxide, I would get either laughed out of the place, or dragged out by security.

Yep, but if you made it known what they are doing, those who share your views would not do business with that factory or whoever that factory supplies, putting them in harm of not making any profits…

The issue is, some things are ridiculously difficult to do by yourself, or by competing private groups

Sorry, life isn’t easy. Someone should have mentioned that to you once or twice before now…

Trouble is, like real evolution, the evolution of the markets is adaptive, but not towards some grand, platonic, underlying reality, but towards whatever it is at the moment that society and the rewards of wealth encouraged.

And adding government into the mix unnecessarily doesn’t fix any of that, in fact it adds in politics AND force…

Posted by: Rhinehold at December 6, 2011 1:42 PM
Comment #332751

Stephen

Like the King of France in Tocqueville’s time, you think that central planning by people who know best will produce the best results.

There is a strong and necessary role for government. Government must enforce the rule of law and protect the commons, as you allude. But government should not be the first resort to solve problems. There is a more or less good progression. If you can solve the problem yourself, do it. You probably do not form a committee to decide whether to buy Coke of Pepsi for your own consumption. If you cannot solve the problem by yourself, do it in voluntary association with others. Most of us belong to voluntary organizations or we help our neighbors and friends. These two things can take care of most of life’s challenges. Only in the last resort do you need to bring in the coercive power of government to force decisions or make them for you.

As I wrote many times, w/o irony, I love government, especially our American form of government. But we don’t want to have too much of it or use it inappropriately.

Returning to the France example above, in Tocqueville’s time people like you would have thought that France was run better than the U.S. After all, there was a plan and the best people of France made up the rules for the lesser folk to follow. They made sure there was justice and punished people who did things wrong. America was just too disorderly. We allowed people to make decisions, even if they were the wrong sort. From 1930- now, which country did better?

I would also parallel Rhinhold and ask why you think government can do a better job at solving those problems?

Posted by: C&J at December 6, 2011 4:41 PM
Comment #332766

Rhinehold states:

“Yep, but if you made it known what they are doing, those who share your views would not do business with that factory or whoever that factory supplies, putting them in harm of not making any profits.”

True. So I’m assuming that your saying that tens of thousands of people may have to die before the company finally has to shut down due to lack of profits. Seems like government intervention of capping how much can be released, and strongly enforcing it in the first place, would not only help the company, but save lives.

Also you state: “those who share your views.” I’m assuming most people would share the view that an increased amount of sulfur dioxide in the air is not a good thing seeing that inhaling sulfur dioxide is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and disease, difficulty in breathing, and premature death. But you never know, some people just hate government intervention so much their willing to die to prevent it. Man what troopers!

Posted by: guy at December 6, 2011 10:34 PM
Comment #332778

Another timely Harry Browne quote…

“If there seem to be ten thousand people who can’t help themselves, pass a law to help them and there will suddenly be ten MILLION who can’t help themselves. The new law will provide the incentive to qualify as needy.”

Posted by: Rhinehold at December 7, 2011 1:57 AM
Comment #332779

guy, you’re right, by placing a cap (ie, making a low about how much sulfur dioxide can be released into the air) you guarantee that this will never happen. We all know that if there is a law against something, that it ends that from happening ever again!

You know, like the law against smoking pot, we saw how that ended all pot smoking everywhere once and for all. Just like with making alcohol did during prohibition. We ended rape, murder and theft with our laws, as we did poverty with our war on poverty…

You’ve convinced me, let’s just start making laws against everything and then we can all be safe!

Posted by: Rhinehold at December 7, 2011 2:01 AM
Comment #332784
You know, like the law against smoking pot, we saw how that ended all pot smoking everywhere once and for all.

Ans I suppose taking my business elsewhere would solve this problem Rhinehold? Your comparing apples and oranges here with this rebuttal. The fact is business will emit whatever benefits them unless there is a law in place telling them not to. The limp noodle approach of not buying their product is laughable as an answer to the problem. Because you can show where public pressure has changed a few things the fact is the corporations are more worried about the public pressure resulting in more and stricter laws.

Posted by: j2t2 at December 7, 2011 8:30 AM
Comment #332791

j2t2

I notice a pattern. Conservatives look for incentives - carrots. Liberals look to punish - sticks.

Liberals think that nobody does the right thing except under the threat of government coercion. Conservatives know that people do indeed follow their own interests, but that those interests often include so-called “higher values”.

Let me give a example. I bought timber land formerly owned by big paper companies. They owned the land for more than 70 years. It was managed beautifully. Stream beds were protected, old trees were allowed to grow for wildlife protection and natural beauty. The company - Union Camp - was in business for profit, but profit included conservation values and excellent relations with local people. They allowed hunting freely etc.

I am sure there were laws involved, but I also know that the firm could have cheated. They didn’t. I see the evidence of good behavior above and beyond what could have been enforced by law.

I also know of many firms that do great things in social areas, sponsoring students and outreach. There is no law that forces this. They do a much better job of helping the poor per dollar spent than government programs.

Force and coercion can compel compliance, but they cannot compel active cooperation and certainly not innovation. Some things must be matters of law, but we should depend on it sparingly.

Posted by: C&J at December 7, 2011 2:34 PM
Comment #332792
I notice a pattern. Conservatives look for incentives - carrots. Liberals look to punish - sticks.

Not really C&J. It pretty much depends upon the issue if you look harder. There are many things conservatives prefer to use the stick. Birth Control, protesters etc.

Liberals think that nobody does the right thing except under the threat of government coercion. Conservatives know that people do indeed follow their own interests, but that those interests often include so-called “higher values”.

Again C&J it depends upon the issue. Conservatives were leading the flag burning amendment as one example,were they not?


Let me give a example….

Then once again we have examples of corporations intentionally doing just the opposite of this one. Some do some don’t laws kinda help to level the playing field for those that aren’t into higher values.

Force and coercion can compel compliance, but they cannot compel active cooperation and certainly not innovation. Some things must be matters of law, but we should depend on it sparingly.

Sparingly is best but as the world gets more complex so do those not using the higher values. Most do, but because of those that don’t we all get penalized. Yet we blame the cops for the bank getting robbed.

Posted by: j2t2 at December 7, 2011 2:59 PM
Comment #332801

j2t2

The last point about coercion I think is the most important. Force can get compliance, but it cannot make people use their intelligence and imaginations to make things better. I think that is a big difference even among the examples you use at counter.

Take flag burning, for example. I personally don’t think it should be illegal, although it should also not be illegal to kick the ass of anybody who does it. However, let’s assume we want to make a law. That one is easy. We want to stop simple behavior. We are not stifling the innovation that might make flag burning better. The same goes for abortion, protestors etc.

You may not agree with the goal, but in the case of flags, protests or birth control, all you want is compliance.

In the case of business, you want innovation. So in the case of the things you mention getting compliance is the goal. In business, we want more.

In a more complex world we require MORE freedom, not less. Government officials cannot hope to understand the processes that firms are using to create wealth. They will often outlaw the wrong things. A better plan would be to incentives proper behaviors.

Any leadership must use a mix of force, incentives, inspiration and intelligence. Force is the brutal basic step, but we hope to move beyond that.

I have observed many countries with strict laws. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the number and scope of rules and the respect for law. If you make laws the people cannot or do not respect, you erode respect for even good laws.

Government - or any leadership - must always act within those constraints. Government may have the power to enact laws, it may even possess the power to enforce them, but the power to get people to respect law is not something that can be forced.

The Soviets had a law for everything. The produced almost zero innovation. The same goes for firms and even people.

Posted by: C&J at December 7, 2011 6:45 PM
Comment #332802

Rhinehold states: “We all know that if there is a law against something, that it ends that from happening ever again!
You know, like the law against smoking pot, we saw how that ended all pot smoking everywhere once and for all. Just like with making alcohol did during prohibition. We ended rape, murder and theft with our laws, as we did poverty with our war on poverty.”


So you are basically saying that laws are ineffective because people will just do what they want to do. I didn’t know most conservatives wanted to not only legalize pot, but rape and murder too. I mean why not?, laws are useless.

Posted by: guy at December 7, 2011 8:26 PM
Comment #332810

In the case of business you want profit,C&J, that is the bottom line. Sometimes it takes innovation more often it takes what passes for innovation, cutting salaries and benefits for workers, off shoring jobs, and so on.

The CDO’s responsible for the financial meltdown were innovation that was not regulated C&J. A few insiders made money and enjoyed the freedom of doing so at the expense of the many. They were incentivized to do so. Their freedom caused many to become less free.

Posted by: j2t2 at December 7, 2011 9:01 PM
Comment #332813

So you are basically saying that laws are ineffective because people will just do what they want to do.

Yes, laws are ineffective in ensuring that an activity will never happen again. It does provide a threat of force that some will weigh their options before committing whatever action it is, a detterent to some, but it will not end the behavior.

It’s like trying to ‘prevent’ terrorism, no matter how much money, time, effort and rights violations you try, it will not prevent it from happening. As John Meuller said in 2006:

We shouldn’t spend billions of dollars trying to protect tens of thousands of “potential targets.” One target identified by the Department of Homeland Security was a water park in Florida called Weeki Wachee Springs, whose response was to suggest they get some federal funding. There are countless other examples: a small town in Washington state, for instance, that has decontamination suits no one knows how to use.

We should save the money and then if something happens, we should use it to fix things, and then go after the people who actually did the crime.

If you are passing laws to prevent an activity, you are deluded. If you are passing a law to provide a deterrent and allow for punishment for breaking that law, that is reasonable.

And no, no one is saying there should be no laws. That moronic argument gets so old… but we should understand what our laws are (the legal authorization of the use of force against a fellow citizen, a human being) and put them in place when necessary, not at whims…

As for the pollution issue, there are already private property laws on the table that can take care of the punishment of a business that violate those laws. Adding additional ones in an attempt to prevent something from being done is mindnumingly short-sighted and out of touch with reality.

I didn’t know most conservatives wanted to not only legalize pot, but rape and murder too. I mean why not?, laws are useless.

I wouldn’t know about conservatives, I’m not one. But again, your idiotic and tired ‘anarchy’ argument is symptomatic of the level of discourse we have in this country today… Maybe there should be IQ tests for voting…

Posted by: Rhinehold at December 8, 2011 12:56 AM
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